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As a result, the person has some or all of the physical traits of a woman, but the genetic makeup of a man.

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For example, if both individuals intend to donate sperm but avoid (potentially costly) sperm receipt, mating interests are incompatible.

It has been suggested that such conflicts could be resolved by a mechanism called sperm trading, where both partners accept both mating roles and trade one type of gametes, e.g. Michiels (2007): Precopulatory stabbing, hypodermic injections and unilateral copulations in a hermaphroditic sea slug. [full text] Anthes N, Putz A, Michiels NK (2006): Sex role preferences, gender conflict and sperm trading in simultaneous hermaphrodites: a new framework .

eggs, against access to the respective gametes of the partner. Animal Behaviour Volume: 72, Issue: 1, Pages: 1-12, [full text] Anthes N, Putz A, Michiels NK (2005): Gender trading in a hermaphrodite. (2016): Darwinian sex roles confirmed across the animal kingdom. Koene JM, Pförtner T, Michiels NK (2005): Piercing the partner's skin influences sperm storage in earthworms.

Using manipulative experiments in the sea slug genus we have shown that conditional reciprocity may indeed exist, even though the costs and benefits involved remain to be studied. Current Biology 15: R792-R793, [full text] Janicke T., Häderer I.

At puberty, female sex characteristics - such as breasts - develop.

However, the person does not menstruate and become fertile.

In some cases, these strategies can take extreme forms in "hit-and-run" systems that severely damage the partner (e.g. Using the opisthobranch sea slug genus as a test case, we currently reconstruct the evolution of hypodermic injection strategies and quantify the costs and benefits that such strategies involve for the sperm donor and the sperm reciever.

(ii) Differences in costs and benefits associated with matings in the male and female function may generate severe conflicts over mating roles, in particular if two hermaphroditic mates prefer to copulate in the same sex function.

In this context, we are particularly interested in understanding how sexual selection can modulate patterns of sex allocation as well as the stability of hermaphrodites against the invasion of pure sex individuals. In consequence, copulatory and post-copulatrry selection may be particularly intense in simultaneous hermaphrodites, offering ample scope for sexual conflict.

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